Dutch Oven Cooking
The wood fire has burned down in your fireplace and you
have your Dutch oven sitting on a bed of glowing charcoal. You lift the lid with
the fireplace poker to see how the Chicken Brunswick Stew is cooking and the
aroma starts your mouth watering. You know you'll soon experience eating at its
best. Welcome to the world of Dutch oven cooking!
Dutch ovens have been used by people for hundreds of years and are still
popular today. When the American frontier was being settled, pioneers cooked
outdoors, in a fireplace or in a lean-to behind the cabin. Large, heavy cast
iron pots were made with lids and placed directly into the coals of an open
fire. It has been said that the final design of the Dutch oven was done by the
skilled craftsman, Paul Revere and this design is still in use today.
The cast iron pot was produced in large numbers by New England manufacturers.
Dutch traders purchased many of these pots for trading with Indians. The pots
became known as "Dutch ovens."
As the exploration movement traveled west in America, so did the Dutch oven.
It's recorded that one of the most important pieces of equipment in the Lewis
and Clark expedition was a large Dutch oven. There have been no improvement made
on the cast iron pot from that time to now.
There are present day aluminum Dutch ovens but many feel the cast iron is
still the best for cooking if weight is not a problem.
Dutch ovens have a flat bottom sitting of three short legs protruding about
two inches. It has a strong wire bail and the lid is made of the same heavy cast
iron material with a small handle in the center. The rim of the lid is flanged
so that hot coals will stay on the lid while cooking. Dutch ovens come in
different sizes with the 12" pot being the most popular. They range in weight
from 7 to 30 lbs.
Preparing the Dutch Oven For Cooking
1. Make sure the lid fits properly on the pot before purchasing it. If by
some chance you have a poorly fitting lid to your pot, there is a remedy. Smear
valve grinding compound on the rim of the pot and the edge of the lid and rotate
the lid until you have a good fit.
2. Wash the pot thoroughly with hot water and soap. A brillo pad is really
the way to go here. Manufacturers coat new Dutch ovens with protective waxes or
oils and they must be removed. This should be the only time your Dutch oven
will be washed with soap. Dry the pot quickly. It will rust if you don't.
3. Season or sweeten the pot. Grease the Dutch oven with a thin coat of
vegetable oil or lard using a cotton cloth. Do all surfaces inside and out
including the lid. Do not use butter, margarine, or salad oil.
Place your Dutch oven, with its lid ajar, in your home oven at 350 degrees
for one hour. Open the windows - a slightly unpleasant odor and some smoking may
occur. After baking, allow the oven to cool slowly. Apply another thin coating
of oil while it is still warm. Bake the oven again for one hour and let it cool
to the point where it can be handled. Reapply a thin coat of oil for the third
and last time. Your oven is now ready to use. You will notice that the oven has
turned golden in color but continued use will form a real black surface. The
blacker the pot, the better. This procedure will only have to be done once
unless rust forms or the coating is damaged in storage or use. If that happens
it is easy to season the pot again.
Cooking With a Dutch Oven
Dutch ovens are known for their versatility in cooking. They can be used to
deep fat frying, shallow frying, roasting, baking, boiling or stewing.
There is a formula for controlling the heat in a Dutch oven but it is simple.
Take the size of your oven, for example a 12", add three more coal briquettes to
the top (15), and subtract three from the bottom (9). This technique will
maintain an even temperature of 325 to 350 degrees. For every 2 coals added or
subtracted to this amount, the temperature will be affected by 25 degrees.
8" oven - 10-11 coals on top/ 5-6 coals on bottom
10" oven - 13 coals on top/ 7 on bottom
12" oven - 15 on top/ 9 on bottom
14" oven - 17 on top/ 11 on bottom
16" oven - 19 on top/ 13 on bottom
This is a good formula to start with but take into account that it will vary
from food to food, wind conditions (if cooking outdoors) and outside air
temperature. Here are some general guidelines to use when experimenting with the
1. Soups, stews or liquid dishes need more heat on the bottom than on
the lid. Place 2/3 of the coals below and 1/3 of the coals on top.
2. Meat, poultry, potatoes, vegetables and cobblers require equal
distribution of heat on top and bottom.
3. Cakes, bread, biscuits and cookies require most of the heat to be
on top of the oven with very little on the bottom. Place 1/3 of the coals below
and 2/3 of the coals on top.
There are a few more things to remember about temperature control. Rotating
the oven a third of a turn every ten minutes is helpful. Rotate the lid a third
of a turn in the other direction.
If you are baking bread, rolls or cake, remove the oven from the bottom coals
after 2/3 of the cooking time. It will finish cooking from the top heat. This
will keep the bottom from burning.
Also, try using a round cake rack placed in the bottom of the oven for
breadstuffs and pies. It keeps food from sticking to the bottom and makes
The following is a guide showing which pots are more useful according to
serving size and type of food:
5" oven = 1 pint - serves 1-2: any food
8" oven = 2 quarts - serves 2-4: vegetables, desserts
10" oven = 4 quarts - serves 4-7: beans, rolls, cobblers
12" oven = 6 quarts - serves 12-14: main dishes, side dishes, rolls, desserts
12 Deep" = 8 quarts - serves 16-20: turkeys, hens, hams, standing rib roasts
14" oven = 8 quarts - serves 16-20: main dishes, side dishes, rolls,
14 Deep" = 10 quarts - serves 22-28: turkeys, hens, hams, standing rib roasts
16" oven = 12 quarts - serves 22-28: any food for a large group
Flat bottomed ovens (bean pots) are suited for cooking on a wood stove
A Dutch oven lid can be used as a skillet for cooking eggs or pancakes over
an open fire.
Dutch ovens are also great for "stack cooking." After the first Dutch oven is
heated properly, a second oven can be set on top with coals added to its lid.
Try cooking a main course in a 14" oven with a 10" oven on top baking bread at
the same time.
Cleaning and Caring For Your Dutch Oven
When cleaning the Dutch oven, scrape it out with a spatula. Then, boil an
inch or two of water in the oven to steam it out. After the pot has steamed
awhile, scrub it with a green, scrubby pad and pour out the water. Wipe it dry
and coat it with a light coating of oil while still hot.
Place a couple of paper towels inside the oven so that they hang out a
little. Put the lid on top and then store the oven until next time. The paper
keeps the lid slightly ajar for air movement and collects moisture to keep the
Never allow cast iron to sit in water or allow water to sit in it. The
pot will rust!
Never use soap on cast iron. It will get into the metal pores and
taint your food.
Never place an empty cast iron oven over a hot fire. It will crack or
Never be in a hurry to heat cast iron. It could burn the food or
damage the oven.
Never put cold liquid into a hot cast iron oven. It could crack!
Items For Cooking With A Dutch Oven
1. Leather gloves - to protect hands.
2. Shovel - to move coals ( a folding camp shovel is the best).
3. Whisk broom - to sweep ashes from the lid.
4. Long, Lid Lifter - to remove the oven from heat.
5. Hot Pot Pliers - These pliers have specially designed jaws to grip the
oven lid securely.
Now For The Best Part - Recipes!
2 squirrels 1 tsp. Salt 2 quarts boiling water 1/2
tsp. Pepper 3 potatoes 2 C. tomatoes 1 onion
1 & 1/2 tsp. Sugar 1 C. corn 1/4 C. butter 1 C.
Put 2 squirrels, cut into 6 pieces, into the boiling water. Add potatoes,
onion, corn, lima beans, salt and pepper. Cover and simmer for 2 hours. Add
tomatoes and sugar. Simmer for an additional hour. Add the butter and simmer
again for 30 min. Bring the stew to a boil and dish out! Serves 4. (One large
chicken can be substituted for squirrels. Of course, it would no longer be
2 cloves garlic 4 greenpeppers, chopped 1 onion, sliced
3 potatoes, quartered 3 T. shortening 4 carrots, halved 2 lbs.
venison (or beef) 2 bay leaves 1 can tomato sauce 6 medium onions 1
C. water salt & pepper to taste
Fry sliced onion, garlic and shortening in Dutch oven. Add the meat and
brown. Cover with tomato sauce and water. Remove garlic; add carrots, peppers,
potatoes and whole onions. Add more water if necessary along with the
seasonings. Cook for 1 hour. Add hot coals to top of lid as well. Serves 6.
Dutch Oven Beans
1 2-lb. Can pork and beans 1/4 C. mustard 4 thick slices of bacon
1/4 C. catsup 1 onion, chopped 1/8 C. cider vinegar 1/2 C. brown
Mix beans thoroughly with onion, brown sugar, mustard, catsup and vinegar.
Put into Dutch oven and place bacon on top of beans. Cover and bury in coals at
least 1 hour. Serves 6.
1C. & 2T. flour 1/8 tsp. Salt 1/4 tsp. baking soda
2 T. crisco (solid) 1 tsp. baking powder 1/2 C. buttermilk
Place 1 T. crisco in bottom of oven. Place coals on lid to bring temperature
to 500 degrees. Combine flour, baking soda, salt and baking powder in bowl. Cut
in crisco until mixture becomes grainy. Add buttermilk and stir until dough is
formed. Kneed dough briefly on floured surface. Flatten to 1/2" thick. Cut out
biscuits with a glass or cup. Place in oven and turn once to coat both sides.
Bake at 500 degrees for 10 min.
Sugar Almond Cookies
1/2 C. softened butter 1/2 tsp. salt 1 C. sugar 2
tsp. baking powder 2 C. flour 1 egg 1/2 tsp. vanilla extract
1/4 C. crushed almonds
Combine butter and sugar, stirring until well mixed. Blend in egg and
vanilla. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. Drop onto greased pie tin.
Place on trivet or cake rack in 400 degree oven. Bake for 6 to 7 min.
100 PREPPING ITEMS YOU NEED TO STOCK UP ON
addition to food reserves, there are a host of other items that will be
incredibly valuable if the supply chain breaks down due to a terrorist attack, a
natural disaster or other national emergency. If you wait you could risk never
being able to obtain many of these essentials or be forced to prices beyond what
you’d ever dream possible.
You should avoid that risk and get
started collecting them now. Not only are these items great to have on hand even
if the crisis is short term, they could save your life in a variety of
So as you move through this list, make a note of the items
you still need. If there’s anything you don’t yet have in storage, add it to
your shopping list and pick it up the next time you’re out.
of these items can be found at big stores like Wal-Mart, Target or K-mart, but
there are a few you will need to get at a big box or local home supply store.
Still others must be obtained other, less traditional places.
Here’s the list; you should start accumulating as many of these items as
possible, if not only for your own family’s use, but for barter possibilities
down the road.
1. Generators. (They go quickly when natural
disasters are approaching or have already hit.)
2. Water filters and
3. Portable toilets.
4. Seasoned firewood. Wood takes
about six to 12 months to become dried for home uses.
5. Oil lamps, lamp
6. Coleman fuel. (Impossible to have too much.)
Guns, ammunition, pepper spray, bows, arrows, knives, clubs, bats and
8. Hand operated can openers, egg beaters and
9. Honey, syrups, white and brown sugar.
10. Rice, beans
11. Vegetable oil (for cooking)..
lighter fluid (will become scarce suddenly).
13. Water containers, any
size. Use food grade if storing water for drinking.
14. Tents and
15. Rope, paracord and binding straps. (Can’t
have too much as these have hundreds of uses.)
17. Survival guide book.
18. Mantles: Aladdin,
Coleman, etc. (Without this item, longer-term lighting is difficult.)
19. Baby supplies: Diapers, formula, ointments, ibuprofen, acetaminophen,
20. Washboards, mop bucket w/wringer (for laundry).
Cook stoves (propane, Coleman or kerosene).
22. Vitamin and mineral
23. Book on edible plants in your region.
Feminine hygiene, hair and skin care products, lip balm.
underwear (tops and bottoms).
26. Bow saws, axes and hatchets, wedges
(also, honing oil).
27. Aluminum foil; regular and heavy duty (great
cooking and barter item).
28. Gasoline containers (plastic and
29. Garbage bags (impossible to have too many).
Toilet paper, facial tissue and paper towels.
31. Milk—powdered and
condensed (shake liquid every three to four months).
32. Garden seeds
33. Clothes pins, line and hangers.
Coleman’s pump repair kit.
35. Tuna fish (in oil).
extinguishers (or a large box of baking soda in every room).
38. Batteries (all sizes… buy furthest-out for expiration
39. Garlic, spices, vinegar and baking supplies.
dogs (and plenty of dog food).
41. Flour, yeast and salt.
Matches. (“Strike anywhere” preferred.) Boxed, wooden matches will go
43. Writing paper, pads, pencils and solar calculators.
44. Insulated ice chests (good for keeping items from freezing in
45. Work boots, belts, jeans and durable shirts.
46. Flashlights, light sticks and torches (No. 76 Dietz lanterns).
Journals, diaries and scrapbooks (jot down ideas, feelings, experience, historic
48. Garbage cans, plastic (great for storage, water,
transporting—if with wheels).
49. Men’s hygiene: Shampoo, toothbrush and
paste, mouthwash, floss, nail clippers, etc.
50. Cast iron cookware
(sturdy, efficient, but heavy if on the move).
51. Fishing supplies and
52. Mosquito coils, repellent, sprays and creams.
54. Tarps, stakes, twine, nails, rope, spikes, etc.
56. Laundry detergent (liquid).
57. Backpacks and
58. Garden tools and supplies.
fabrics and sewing supplies.
60. Canned fruits, veggies, soups, stews,
61. Bleach (plain, NOT scented: 4 to 6 percent sodium
62. Canning supplies, (jars, lids, wax, etc.)
Knives and sharpening tools: Files, stones, steel, etc.
tires, tubes, pumps, chains, etc.
65. Sleeping bags, blankets, pillows,
66. Carbon monoxide alarm (battery powered).
Board games, cards, dice, etc.
68. d-con Rat poison, Mouse Prufe II,
roach killer, etc.
69. Mousetraps, ant traps and cockroach
70. Paper plates, cups, utensils (stock up, folks).
Baby wipes, oils, waterless and antibacterial soap (saves water and can be used
as a fire starter).
72. Rain gear, rubberized boots, etc.
Shaving supplies (razors, creams, talc, after shave, etc.)
pumps and siphons (for water and for fuels).
75. Soy sauce, vinegar,
bullions, gravy, soup base, etc.
76. Spare glasses and reading
77. Chocolate, cocoa, Tang, and punch (water
79. Woolen clothing, scarves,
ear-muffs, mittens, etc.
80. Boy Scout handbook, also leader’s
81. Roll-on window insulation kit (MANCO).
crackers, saltines, pretzels, trail mix, jerky, etc.
83. Popcorn, peanut
butter, nuts, etc.
84. Socks, underwear, t-shirts, etc.
85. Lumber (all types).
86. Wagons and carts (for
transport to and from).
87. Cots and inflatable mattresses.
Gloves: Work, warming, gardening, etc.
89. Lantern hangers.
Screen patches, glue, nails, screws, nuts and bolts.
93. Cigarettes (barter item).
94. Wine and liquors
(for barter, bribes, medicinal uses, etc.)
95. Paraffin wax.
Glue, nails, nuts, bolts, screws, etc.
97. Chewing gum and
98. Atomizers (for cooling and bathing).
99. Hats and
Again, remember that your
most basic needs
to survive any disaster
will be FOOD and
The mainstream media and the federal
government will soon have the blood of the world on it’s
Radiation from the Fukushima Nuclear Plant
disaster in Japan is now actively in the ecosystem all along the North American
west coast… even the sea weed is now radiated. The Vancouver
reported one year ago that the seaweed tested from
waters off the coast of British Columbia were 4 times the amount considered
safe. No further test results were released after the initial report.
The governments of the United States and Canada
are not conducting tests for radioactivity – at least not to the knowledge of
the public. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton has agreed
to continue purchasing seafood from Japan, despite the fact that
the food is not being tested for radioactive contamination. Last
November, independent testing in Japan showed 65 per cent of the catches tested
positive for cesium (a radioactive material). Instead of refusing to
purchase the poisoned fish, food safety agencies in both the United
States and Canada have simply raised the “acceptable level of radiation.”
We can’t go offending the Japanese after promising to buy their tainted goods,
now can we?
After the North American governments refused to
fund testing, oceanographer Ken Buesseler, a senior scientist at the non-profit
Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Woods Hole, Mass, along with Nicholas
Fisher, a marine sciences professor at the State University of New York at Stony
Brook, and other concerned scientists, managed to secure private funding for a
Pacific research voyage. The results?
Cesium levels in the Pacific had initially gone
up an astonishing 45 million times above pre-accident levels. The levels then
declined rapidly for a while, but after that, they
unexpectedly leveled off.
In July, cesium levels stopped declining and
remained stuck at 10,000 times above pre-accident levels.
This means the ocean isn't diluting the
radiation as expected. If it had been, cesium levels would have kept
The finding suggests that radiation is still
being released into the ocean long after the accident in March, 2011.
Less than two weeks after the tsunami and
subsequent nuclear disaster, Michael Kane, an investigative journalist, reported
, “In the wake
of the continuing nuclear tragedy in Japan, the United States government is
still moving quickly to increase the amounts of radiation the population can
“safely” absorb by raising the safe zone for exposure to levels designed to
protect the government and nuclear industry more than human life.”
The radiation has absolutely reached the shores
of North America. Water samples from across the continent have tested
positive for unsafe levels of radioactivity. The levels
exceeded federal drinking water thresholds, known as maximum contaminant levels,
or MCL, by as much as 181 times.”
This means that
the complete ecosystem of the Pacific Ocean is now poisoned with
radiation and we aren't being warned.
Samples of milk taken across the United States
have shown radiation at levels 2000 percent higher than EPA
The reason that milk is so significant is that it
it representative of the entire food supply. According to an article
published on Natural News
consume grass and are exposed to the same elements as food crops and water
supplies. In other words, when cows’ milk starts testing positive for high
levels of radioactive elements, this is indicative
of radioactive contamination of the entire food
The Food and Drug Administration and
the Environmental Deception Protection Agency, instead of refusing to
prohibit the sale of tainted foods and mandatory testing of foods produced and
harvested from the Pacific Coast, have simply raised the “acceptable
of radioactive material in foods.
Clearly, the “it’s-all-for-your-own-good”
government will not protect us, or even inform us of the dangers so we can
protect ourselves, because it might dip into the pockets of the global elite,
the nuclear energy industry, and the food industries. There is big money
behind this cover-up. Refusing to purchase and consume their tainted goods is
the best way to fight back, while keeping our families safe and healthy.
How can we protect ourselves? First, be aware of
what items are likely to be highly tainted.
Question the origin of ALL seafood. Fish and crustaceans from the
Pacific Ocean should all be considered to be poisoned with
rainfall and snowfall are all radiated. Do not drink any water that
has not been filtered. The tap water that flows from your faucet has
NOT been treated to rid it of radioactive particles. A recent report
from the NY Times
rooftop water monitoring program managed by UC Berkeley’s Department of Nuclear
Engineering detected substantial spikes in rain-borne iodine-131 during
torrential downpours …
3.) DAIRY PRODUCTS
Milk and milk products from the West Coast states currently have the highest
levels of radiation in North America.
Vegetables, Wines, Tomatoes, Strawberries….all produce from California or any
other West Coast State are also likely to be tainted.
: If a
animal eats any leafy vegetable all along the West Coast, that animal has
consumed radiation, and is poisoned. This is any animal from cows, pigs,
goats, sheep to wild deer and other game.
If you eat the above foods from areas with high
radiation levels, you are eating radiation and feeding it to your children.
Slowly the radiation levels within your body will build
up. This is PERMANENT
Infant mortality rates across the United States
have increased by more than 35% since the nuclear disaster, according to a court
statement by Dr. with independent scientist Leuren Moret, MA, PhD. A study
published in The International Journal of
indicates that more than 20,000 deaths right
here in North America can be directly attributed to the release of radioactive
material from Fukushima.
Radioactive isotopes of the type released from
Fukushima have a half life of 30,000 years. This means that we must
permanently change the way we prepare our food.
- Wash your food with soap and rinse it in
- Be aware of the origins of your
vegetables, fish, game and seafood.
- Keep abreast of radiation levels to
help monitor where your food is acquired.
- Use only filtered water for drinking,
cooking and ice.
Sources: www.shtfplan.com “Fallout” –
CollapseNet Fukushima Radiation Spreads Worldwide –
Washington Blog Nuclear Genocide of Babies and Children
in Japan, the US and Canada
Bubonic Plague has been confirmed in a squirrel, in Jefferson County, Colorado. Now there is no panic needed, the risk of human contracting this is extremely low, but the fact that the plague is spreading this fast at least among the animal population, is concerning because that means more exposure risks for humans.
The Bubonic Plague is a biohazard level of 4-4 and is extremely deadly for humans. The main vector for this biohazard is by fleas, with entail cause the plague in animals, any animal that carry fleas and thus can infect humans.
The biggest concern is that since the black plague, the human race has pretty much ignored this hazard. Thus making us ill prepared for any type of major outbreak.
Plague, a bacterial disease of rodents, is generally transmitted to humans through the bites of infected fleas, but can also be transmitted by direct contact with infected animals, including rodents, rabbits, and pets. Symptoms of plague in humans include sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and weakness. In most cases, there is a painful swelling of the lymph node in the groin, armpit or neck areas. Plague symptoms in cats and dogs are fever, lethargy and loss of appetite. There may be a swelling in the lymph node under the jaw. With prompt diagnosis and appropriate antibiotic treatment, the fatality rate in people and pets can be greatly reduced.
Bubonic Plague; Biohazard Level: 4-4 HazardousViruses and bacteria
that cause severe to fatal disease in humans
, and for which vaccines or other treatments are not available
, such as Bolivian and Argentine hemorrhagic fevers, H5N1(bird flu), Dengue hemorrhagic fever, Marburg virus, Ebola virus, hantaviruses, Lassa fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and other hemorrhagic or unidentified diseases
. When dealing with biological hazards at this level the use of a Hazmat suit and a self-contained oxygen supply is mandatory.
The entrance and exit of a Level Four biolab will contain multiple showers, a vacuum room, an ultraviolet light room, autonomous detection system, and other safety precautions designed to destroy all traces of the biohazard. Multiple airlocks are employed and are electronically secured to prevent both doors opening at the same time. All air and water service going to and coming from a Biosafety Level 4 (P4) lab will undergo similar decontamination procedures to eliminate the possibility of an accidental release.
(RSOE) Jefferson County Public Health has confirmed that a squirrel from the Idledale area has tested positive for bubonic plague. Plague is a highly infectious bacterial disease carried by various types of wild rodents and is transmitted primarily by flea bites. Squirrels, rodents, prairie dogs and other mammals, such as rabbits and cats are susceptible to plague because they carry fleas. “The risk of residents contracting plague is extremely low,” said Jefferson County Public Health Director Dr. Mark Johnson. “We want people to be aware that summer marks the beginning of the plague season, and just a few simple precautions will further reduce that risk. The best way to prevent plague is to control the presence of rodents and fleas in and around the home. In addition, people should avoid contact with any species of wild rodents, especially sick or dead rodents. If a dead rodent is found, do not handle the animal directly, use gloves and place it in a plastic bag. Dogs and cats should be confined so they cannot prey on infected rodents and then bring the disease home with them. Pet owners who live close to rodent populations should use flea-control products recommended by their veterinarian. Controlling fleas on pets will prevent the transfer of fleas to humans. If these precautions are taken, the probability of contracting plague is extremely low. Anyone experiencing these symptoms should consult a physician immediately: sudden onset of high fever; muscle pain; malaise, or a general feeling of being ill; nausea; and vomiting. Jefferson County Public Health will continue its plague surveillance of rodent populations in the county.
The magma pool under Yellowstone is far larger than the one under Mount Etna, pictured here spewing lava Reuterswww.mirror.co.uk
Supervolcanoes with the power to destroy human civilisations may have much shorter fuses than was previously thought, scientists believe.
The news could be bad for the US, where a supervolcano is said to be simmering beneath Yellowstone National Park.
If it erupted, two thirds of the country could be rendered uninhabitable.
Supervolcanoes are fuelled by giant pools of magma that form deep underground.
Geologists had thought it took between 100,000 to 200,000 years for a supervolcano magma pool to build up enough pressure to erupt.
But the new study suggests that the giant magma bodies may only exist for a few thousand years, or even a few hundred, before exploding.
A magma reservoir six miles below Yellowstone has been rising at a record rate since 2004.Hotspot: Tourists watch the 'Old Faithful' geyser
National treasure: The sun rises near the Black Sand Basin in Yellowstone National Park
The Wyoming park sits above a gigantic plume of hot and molten rock that begins at least 400 miles beneath Earth’s surface and rises to 30 miles underground, where it widens to about 300 miles across.
Blobs of magma occasionally break off from the top of the plume, and rise farther, resupplying the magma chamber beneath the Yellowstone Caldera.
Resembling the lid of a cooking pot, the caldera formed when the last super-eruption occurred 600,000 years ago.
The supervolcano has erupted a total of three times in the last 2.1 million years. Scientists believe it could be due to erupt again.
A full scale eruption at Yellowstone would be 1,000 times more powerful than the volcanic blast that tore apart Mount St Helens in 1980.
Explosive: A satellite image of Mount St Helens after the eruption
There is evidence that a similar super-eruption in Indonesia 74,000 years ago came close to wiping out the entire human species.
The new study was based on analysis of a super-eruption that occurred in eastern California 760,000 years ago.
Several independent lines of evidence indicated that the magma pool erupted within a few thousand years, perhaps within a few hundred years, covering half the North American continent with smouldering ash.
The scientists based their estimate on quartz crystallisation rates. Previous studies have relied on the growth of zircon crystals, which is said to be a less accurate method.
The research is published in the online journal Public Library of Science ONE.
Lead scientist Dr Guilherme Gualda, from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, said: “Our study suggests that when these exceptionally large magma pools form they are ephemeral and cannot exist very long without erupting.
“The fact that the process of magma body formation occurs in historical time, instead of geological time, completely changes the nature of the problem.”
He said regions such as Yellowstone should be monitored regularly to provide advance warning of a catastrophic super-eruption.
Cucumbers Contain Most Of The Vitamins You Need every day
- -Cucumbers contain most of the vitamins you need every day, just one cucumber c...ontains Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Folic Acid, Vitamin C, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc.
-Feeling tired in the afternoon, put down the caffeinated soda and pick up a cucumber. Cucumbers are a good source of B vitamins and carbohydrates that can provide that quick pick-me-up that can last for hours.
-Tired of your bathroom mirror fogging up after a shower? Try rubbing a cucumber slice along the mirror, it will eliminate the fog and provide a soothing, spa-like fragrance.
-Want to avoid a hangover or terrible headache? Eat a few cucumber slices before going to bed and wake up refreshed and headache free. Cucumbers contain enough sugar, B vitamins and electrolytes to replenish many essential nutrients, reducing the intensity of both hangover and headache.
-Out of WD 40 and need to fix a squeaky hinge?
Take a cucumber slice and rub it along the problematic hinge, and voila, the squeak is gone!
-Stressed out and don't have time for massage, facial or visit to the spa? Cut up an entire cucumber and place it in a boiling pot of water, the chemicals and nutrients from the cucumber will react with the boiling water and be released in the steam, creating a soothing, relaxing aroma that has been shown to reduce stress in new mothers and college students during final exams.
-Just finish a business lunch and realize you don't have gum or mints?
Take a slice of cucumber and press it to the roof of your mouth with your tongue for 30 seconds to eliminate bad breath, the phytochemcials will kill the bacteria in your mouth responsible for causing bad breath.
An antibiotic-resistant superbug
once thought to be rare is spreading through health-care facilities in Southern California, health officials say.
Roughly 350 cases of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, or CRKP, were reported in Los Angeles County between June and December of 2010, according to a study from the L.A. County Department of Public Health to be presented April 3 in Dallas at the annual meeting of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America.
"These patients tend to be elderly, they are commonly on ventilators and they often stay at the facility for an extended period of time," Dr. Dawn Terashita, medical epidemiologist and lead author of the study, said in a statement.
CRKP joins other superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or MRSA, in a league of bacteria that outwits typical antibiotics.
"We develop new drugs to defeat the infections and germs change to get around those drugs and this is one of those cases," Dr. Richard Besser, ABC News chief health and medical editor, said today in an interview on ABC News' "Good Morning America
Besser is a former acting director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta.
"It's like an arms race and in many ways the germs are winning," he said.David Sacks/Getty ImagesHealth officials in California are reporting... View Full Size
David Sacks/Getty ImagesHealth officials in California are reporting more than 350 cases of a rare superbug called C-R-K-P. Drug-Resistant Bacterium Can Kill Watch Video Rare Superbug Frightens California Watch Video Deadly C. Diff Superbug Spreading Watch Video
CRKP is not new to California, or the rest of the country for that matter. The CDC has been tracking it across 35 states since 2009. It is young, however, compared to MRSA, according to Dr. Arjun Srinivasan, associate director of the CDC's health care-associated, infection-prevention programs.
"But in terms of mortality and morbidity, it's very, very serious," Srinivasan said. "These infections are more difficult to treat than MRSA."
CRKP is an enterobacterium like salmonella and E. coli.
It is unclear how many cases of the 350 reported by Terashita and colleagues were fatal. It is also unclear whether the infections stemmed from improper care at long term-care facilities or the frailty of the patients they serve. But Terashita said infected patients tended to have health problems that often resulted in antibiotic use, which might have made them more susceptible.
"All of these factors contribute to a greater risk for health care-acquired infections," she said.
Besser said, "This superbug is very dangerous. It tends to affect people that are in the hospital for long periods of time; people that have underlying medical problems; people who have been in nursing homes."
Although healthy people in the general public are not at risk for infection, they could transmit the bacteria to sick loved ones.
"As a loved one of someone that is in the hospital, you have to be vigilant when you're sitting there with your relative and anyone comes in and wants to touch your relative without washing their hands," Besser said. "You have to say something. ... It does come down to simple things like that, making sure no one is giving a germ to someone you care about."
Health-care workers should be equally vigilant, Besser said.
"A lot of it comes down to hospitals," he said. "They need to make sure that health-care workers aren't spreading it from patient to patient. That's mainly what takes place.
Preventing the spread of CRKP is key because the infections are so difficult to treat, the CDC's Srinivasan said. The "mainstay treatment," colistin, is an older generation antibiotic with toxic side effects. And newer, more effective treatment options are unlikely to be developed any time soon.
- Survival Planning - Emergency Supplies - Survival Tips
I know . . . survival planning, gathering survival supplies, food storage — it all seems overwhelming.
Shooter N.W. is here to help you to prepare your family to survive a natural disaster or any crisis that may come your way.
Every day there are headlines in the news that should motivate each of us to prepare as quickly as we can. Unemployment, hurricane season, floods, and other disasters happen somewhere in the world.
How long do you think it will take for the grocery store shelves to become empty? Numerous articles have stated that the entire world is only 3 days away from starvation - meaning, in 3 days there would be no more food in the stores. This scenario, of course, would depend on the scope of a disaster.
So, in my opinion, your family survival "plan" should include these 4 elements of preparedness:
Enough supplies to last at least 14 days (if you stay where you are).
Enough supplies to last at least 6 months (staying where you are or moving to another location).
Long term: the skills and ability to provide food, water, clothing, and shelter for your family for 20 years.
The desire to survive extreme circumstances without sacrificing your humanity or your values.
Where to start:
Before you begin your food storage, it is critical to have a plan for your family that includes the following:
Contact Plan: This list should include emergency contact information, a place where all family members can meet, numbers for school, work, close neighbors, etc.
Emergency Preparedness Kit: This would include supplies, 72-Hour Food Kit, and a Family Planner.
Evacuation Plan: Know what to take when evacuating your home, including a list of important things to grab and have a Auto Emergency Kit in place.
Find the coolest place in your home (I mean temperature "cool").
Clean out everything including dirt if necessary.
Research shelving possibilities.
It's best to begin with an inventory of what you have, what you need, and a schedule to acquire items later.
Be careful not to think too far ahead or you'll never get started.
Make this a family fun night. Get the kids involved so they will know what's going on and where everything will be kept.
Set deadlines and do one step at a time. This makes the job less overwhelming. (Try rewarding yourself when you have accomplished each task. A generous piece of chocolate cake, maybe?)
Determine how much per month you can spend.
Eventually your grocery budget should mostly include food storage items; however, when you're starting from scratch you may need to invest a little more up front.
It is not wise to go into debt for food storage, so be prepared to be frugal and shop carefully.
Food Storage Guidelines gives you the basics to get you started.
How Much Food will you need for your family size?
Long-Term Food Storage products include wheat, powdered milk, sugar/honey, beans, pasta, and other recipe ingredients that will last 10 to 30 years.
Long Term Shelf Life will give you an idea about how long different foods will last.
Short Term Shelf Life includes items you should have on hand in your pantry. You should have at least a 3-month supply of these foods (except for perishables).
Food Storage Questions - Ask all your food storage questions here and read what other's have asked. This section is a wealth of information on basic food storage, as well as unusual circumstances and storage issues.
Grow Your Own Food to have fresh greens all years, or can or freeze it to add variety to your dehydrated or freeze-dried food supplies.
Learn how to store and purify water - how to prepare the containers, where to store it, where to find water to sustain you in your home, and how to purify any water to make it potable.
Emergency shelter - A shelter can be built in your garage, basement or an inside room; how to create one and when it is necessary.
Emergency Lighting - The variety of ways to light up the darkness should the electricity be out for an hour or a month.
Emergency Heating - Keeping warm is important depending on the weather when a crisis happens.
Cooking When Power's Out - A warm meal will give you strength as well as be a comfort to your family when there is no electricity.
Evacuation Plans - When to evacuate and what to take with you.
Surviving disasters, whether natural or an act of war, is the goal of all of our planning and storing. What to do before, during and after a tornado, flood, hurricane, earthquake, or a wild fire, is vidal information. Ask question share your ideas with the group
This one is pretty easy..Most people walk around totally oblivious to the world around them. They follow what the rest of the people are doing, just trying to get by with their lives..Much like a flock of sheep..When evil, the wolf/bad guys appear they are helpless..With sheep, the sheep rancher uses a sheepdog to guard the flock..We are those sheepdogs..Always vigilant, always watching for the wolf, ready to defend...
- Sea Salt
When we think about setting aside emergency supplies, most of us would agree that preserved food and purified water are the essentials and everything else is secondary to these. Some might even choose to incorporate things like a manual grain mill, a water purifier, a food dehydrator, a solar cook stove and so on. But who would ever consider something as simple and humble as sea salt as an indispensable necessity and commodity in the tumultuous days ahead? I would even go so far as to say if sea salt is not a part of your survival provisions, it’s time to tuck away this invaluable, hidden treasure.
In fact, salt was once valued as a form of currency – it was that scarce, and considered a luxury of few. The ancient Greeks used salt to trade for slaves and Roman soldiers were paid in “salt money” or “salarium argentum” where we derive the English word, “salary”. Homer called it “Divine”. Jesus calls His followers (which I’m honored to say I am) the “salt of the earth”. Wars have been fought and whole settlements turned into cities and nations over the pursuit of salt. Just as gold and silver have once again gained ground in this present economic meltdown, so also will sea salt be a valuable and tradable commodity, literally “worth its weight in gold.” It will be a supreme bartering tool.
Sea salt has a unique ability of drawing out the flavor in food like no other seasoning, but this is secondary to yet another one of its amazing values. Salt has long been known for its ability to preserve foods. If in the event of societal and economic collapse, refrigeration may be a thing of the past. Unless you plan to consume what you pick immediately, depend on your air dehydrator or live off your food storage, you will need salt for preserving food. During harvest time, there should be plenty of fresh food (assuming you thought ahead to plant a garden), but the long harsh winters will inevitably come and preserving food will be a crucial issue. Even hunting for game, chances are you will not be able to consume it all in one sitting – salt preservation will be key. And without power, your pressure canner or electric dehydrator will not get you very far, so salt can be the perfect alternate route.
With salt’s same ability to retard spoilage, “mineral dense sea salt” will also aid in the disinfecting and healing of wounds. A simple salt paste or soaking a wound in a salt/water solution several times a day, should achieve positive results. Sea salt also rejuvenates the skin keeping a more youthful appearance while aiding in the healing of acne, psoriasis, eczema and other skin related problems. Ever wonder why your skin felt so tight, free and clear of irritation or blemishes after spending a day at the beach? Sea salt has miracle healing properties that are often overlooked. In fact, the Blue Lagoon in Iceland is world renown for its hot salt springs that people flock to with skin conditions. Dead Sea salts are another sought after skin commodity.
But might I be quick to add that not just any salt will suffice when it comes to you and your precious loved ones, especially typical table salt (sodium chloride) and in some cases, certain brands of sea salt. Salt that is processed for vast human consumption while meeting the public’s demand for a product that is cheap and convenient, much is also sacrificed. Table salt has been stripped of all but two of its 84 trace minerals through a chemical process, dried at extreme temperatures, and oftentimes – for the sake of appearance – anti-caking, free-flowing, or conditioning agents are added along with iodine. But buyer beware of even some brands of so-called sea salt: It may be mechanically harvested from dirt or concrete basins and piped through metal conduits; artificially processed; heated to extreme temperatures to break the molecular structure; stripped of its essential minerals and further adulterated by chemical additives.1 In essence, many highly acclaimed “sea salts” are no different than plain ole table salt.
So where do you find pure, unadulterated salt – like God intended in nature? The best sea salt we have discovered on the market is Celtic Sea Salt®. Dense with vital trace minerals along with its light grey hue from the pure clay sole it’s harvested from, this sea salt is unmistakable in old world flavor and nutritious. (And taste may mean everything with a bland diet of survival foods!) Extracted from the natural evaporation of the sea and wind alone, the ocean brine is channeled from the sea to the pristine shallow clay ponds, surrounded by vegetation. It provides a natural habitat for the salt while the salt farmer gathers the dazzling white crystals with a long, shovel like tool then collects it daily by hand.2
Celtic Sea Salt® can be a simple addition to any food storage plan that just makes sense. It not only stores indefinitely, it provides so many hidden health benefits to mention in this article, but here are just a few: Supplying well over 80 (24 of which are essential to life) minerals needed for proper metabolic functions and the assimilation of necessary nutrients in the body, natural sea salt is also an excellent immune booster and helps keep the body alkaline. It works synergistically with vitamins and other minerals for their bioavailability to the body. For instance, we know that calcium needs both magnesium and Vitamin D3 to be absorbed; Sodium and potassium need each other in the proper proportions to help maintain normal blood pressure and water distribution. Since natural sea salt contains a balance of minerals including sodium and potassium, the body is able to safely eliminate any excess sodium without the complications of typical table salt. This is a huge benefit for those who have to monitor their salt intake.
In an age of degenerative diseases and in the difficult times that may lie ahead, no doubt sea salt is and will be worth its weight in gold – in more ways than one. It’s not only essential for health and vitality, but clearly carries a vast array of benefits. Discover for yourself why sea salt should be an important part of not only your emergency storage plan, but to a healthier “you”.
“Sea water contains minerals such as ionized sodium, magnesium, calcium, potassium, and selenium, plus many trace elements such as copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and chromium. The human body uses the minerals & trace elements in sea salt to create electrolytes, maintaining the “internal ocean” which is vital to the proper functioning of every system in the body.”